Visual rhythm and perspective


In a mode of consciousness in which there is no disturbance of intellectual impositions, no hurry-scurry to establish causal relations, each object or moment is given the fullest chance to emerge in spotlight-ing distinctiveness very much the way everything appears keenly fresh in the orbit of a child’s vision. Wang Wei’s poetry is particularly noted for its visual immediacy and authenticity: visual perspicuity in each phase of perception (in this case, we may say reception) and different gradations of color and light in the natural makeup of the scenery. The visual order of his images (or moments) in the poem (i.e. the linguistic artifact) follows naturally the cuts and turns of our experiencing the fluctuations of Phenomenon.

The river flows beyond the sky and earth.
The mountain’s color, between seen and unseen.
—”Floating on the River of Han”

‘White clouds—looking back—close up.
Green mists—entering—become nothing.
—”Mount Chungnan”

Tall bamboos reflect sky’s arc.
Flashes of blue wash ripples.
Darkly into the Road of Shang-Hill—
Even woodcutters do not know.
—”Frost-Bamboo Ranges”

Vast desert: a lone smoke, straight.
Long river: the setting sun, round.
—”As Envoy to the Barbarian Pass”

Boating in the wide river:
Confluent waters reach sky’s end.
Sky-waves suddenly open up:
Towns: a thousand ten thousand houses.
Farther on: appear cities
Suddenly mulberry and hemp.
Backwards view of a former native country:
Teeming waters merge with cloud-mist.
—”Crossing River to Ch’ing-ho”


The Shih Ching , usually translated as either The Book of Songs or the Classic of Poetry, is the first great collection of Chinese poetry. Tradition says that it was edited into its present form by the Sage of Sages, Confucius himself. In fact the book was assembled before, during, and after the life of Confucius. Its more than three hundred poems include fragments of works as old as the Shang Dynasty (traditional; dates 1766-1154 BCE) as well as “contemporary” poems from the Chou feudal states written or spoken by both aristocratic court figures and just plain “folks”. A great deal has been said about the origin of many, if not the majority of the poems as oral “folk” art, but it is clear from the artistry of the written language in which they have been handed down that, like the scribes who improved upon the originally oral poetry attributed to “Homer” in the West to create the Iliad and the Odyssey, the people who converted Chou folk songs and court verses into poetry in written Chinese characters clearly thought of themselves as (and were) artists. So the characters used to render simple and direct lyrical utterances of the illiterate peasant folk often honor them with carefully chosen written vocabulary: the heart and soul of folk art remains clearly present, but literary subtleties are introduced. The scribes who created the Shih Ching were poets, not tape recorders. They chose the best of what existed, and they honored it with their own art.

In its present form, the Shih Ching consists of three major sections, the Kuo Feng, or Odes of the States, comprising 160 of the 300 are generally but not always folk songs. The Ya (Elegant Verses) subdivided with no obvious criteria into greater and lesser, include poems 161-265, and the Sung or Temple Odes high ritual songs and bits of dynastic myth, include poems 266-305. The present selection is comes, all but a single longer poem on drinking and its positive and negative consequences from the “Lesser Elegants”, all come from the Kuo Feng Sections.

Knowledge of the Shih Ching poems was a necessity of diplomatic practice around the time of Confucius, when it was a common practice to deliver or at least support the delivery of diplomatic messages among the feudal domains (the “States or Guo of the Guo Feng) by oral presentation of relevant lines from the Classic. From the Han on many of the poems where imbued with very specific allegorical interpretations, but it is clear that later poets, who memorized the book word for word, used it as allusive material in their own poems at least as often for its plain “folk” messages as for its orthodoxly approved allegorical ones.