Like the making of each shot in the movies in which its position, distance, tone and thickness of light and color, direction of its movement and tempo (smoothness and abruptness included) of its movement are all attended to, Wang Wei’s images achieve similar cinematic distinctiveness suggesting all the other elements that have gone into the makeup of a shot. It is my belief that the Southern Sung landscape painters, notably Ma Yuan (fl. c. 1190-1230) and Hsia Kuei (13. C. 1190-1230) and quite a few Ch’an painters such as Yii-chien, were more inspired by Wang Wei’s handling of different tones and gradations of color and light in his poetry than by his paintings. The visual order (strictly speaking, it should be called visual rhythm) being of such importance in the whole scheme of color and light, we will find that any violation of this order in translation will deface Wang Wei’s unique mode of presentation as one example will show.

Empty mountain: no man (is visible)

becomes, in Witter Bynner’s hand,

There seems to be no one on the empty mountain. . . .

The analytical or explanatory “There seems to be no one . . .” has destroyed completely the dramatic presentation of the two phases of perception and putting “no one” ahead of “empty mountain” violates the stance or consciousness of the poet in that unique moment: we need the emptiness, the openness first before we have incident or action (i.e. in this case).

The Shih Ching , usually translated as either The Book of Songs or the Classic of Poetry, is the first great collection of Chinese poetry. Tradition says that it was edited into its present form by the Sage of Sages, Confucius himself. In fact the book was assembled before, during, and after the life of Confucius. Its more than three hundred poems include fragments of works as old as the Shang Dynasty (traditional; dates 1766-1154 BCE) as well as “contemporary” poems from the Chou feudal states written or spoken by both aristocratic court figures and just plain “folks”. A great deal has been said about the origin of many, if not the majority of the poems as oral “folk” art, but it is clear from the artistry of the written language in which they have been handed down that, like the scribes who improved upon the originally oral poetry attributed to “Homer” in the West to create the Iliad and the Odyssey, the people who converted Chou folk songs and court verses into poetry in written Chinese characters clearly thought of themselves as (and were) artists. So the characters used to render simple and direct lyrical utterances of the illiterate peasant folk often honor them with carefully chosen written vocabulary: the heart and soul of folk art remains clearly present, but literary subtleties are introduced. The scribes who created the Shih Ching were poets, not tape recorders. They chose the best of what existed, and they honored it with their own art.

In its present form, the Shih Ching consists of three major sections, the Kuo Feng, or Odes of the States, comprising 160 of the 300 are generally but not always folk songs. The Ya (Elegant Verses) subdivided with no obvious criteria into greater and lesser, include poems 161-265, and the Sung or Temple Odes high ritual songs and bits of dynastic myth, include poems 266-305. The present selection is comes, all but a single longer poem on drinking and its positive and negative consequences from the “Lesser Elegants”, all come from the Kuo Feng Sections.

Knowledge of the Shih Ching poems was a necessity of diplomatic practice around the time of Confucius, when it was a common practice to deliver or at least support the delivery of diplomatic messages among the feudal domains (the “States or Guo of the Guo Feng) by oral presentation of relevant lines from the Classic. From the Han on many of the poems where imbued with very specific allegorical interpretations, but it is clear that later poets, who memorized the book word for word, used it as allusive material in their own poems at least as often for its plain “folk” messages as for its orthodoxly approved allegorical ones.