While the emptying out of intellectual interference allows the things in Phenomenon to emerge in their cinematic concreteness, it also enables the reader (the poet having become Phenomenon itself) to see all sides of a moment of experience simultaneously, in fact, of many moments simultaneously, because the presentation deriving from the aesthetics of pure experience (as we have explained above) is free from concerns of linear development and causal relation which are a product of the intellect. A clearcut example is “Mount Chungnan” :
As in most Chinese landscape paintings, this poem assumes a bird’s-eye view which is the only possible way to see many different moments simultaneously. This is again, to repeat Chuang Tzu’s words, not to hide the boat in the ravine (specific time and locale) but to hide Phenomenon in Phenomenon (in which case time and space become indistinguishable, and therefore we are only aware of blocks of experience moving in and out of Phenomenon, blocks of experience interdefining one another). Wang Wei has provided us with an artifice whose visual immediacy and authenticity brings the reader right into the fluctuations of Phenomenon, an artifice, at the same time, that enlarges infinitely the reader’s psychological horizon (morphologically through visual horizon) by lifting the reader off the ground, making it possible for him to view the entire Phenomenon itself.

Wai-lim Yip
Hiding the Universe: Poems of Wang Wei
Wushinsha-Grossman Press,1970


The Shih Ching , usually translated as either The Book of Songs or the Classic of Poetry, is the first great collection of Chinese poetry. Tradition says that it was edited into its present form by the Sage of Sages, Confucius himself. In fact the book was assembled before, during, and after the life of Confucius. Its more than three hundred poems include fragments of works as old as the Shang Dynasty (traditional; dates 1766-1154 BCE) as well as “contemporary” poems from the Chou feudal states written or spoken by both aristocratic court figures and just plain “folks”. A great deal has been said about the origin of many, if not the majority of the poems as oral “folk” art, but it is clear from the artistry of the written language in which they have been handed down that, like the scribes who improved upon the originally oral poetry attributed to “Homer” in the West to create the Iliad and the Odyssey, the people who converted Chou folk songs and court verses into poetry in written Chinese characters clearly thought of themselves as (and were) artists. So the characters used to render simple and direct lyrical utterances of the illiterate peasant folk often honor them with carefully chosen written vocabulary: the heart and soul of folk art remains clearly present, but literary subtleties are introduced. The scribes who created the Shih Ching were poets, not tape recorders. They chose the best of what existed, and they honored it with their own art.

In its present form, the Shih Ching consists of three major sections, the Kuo Feng, or Odes of the States, comprising 160 of the 300 are generally but not always folk songs. The Ya (Elegant Verses) subdivided with no obvious criteria into greater and lesser, include poems 161-265, and the Sung or Temple Odes high ritual songs and bits of dynastic myth, include poems 266-305. The present selection is comes, all but a single longer poem on drinking and its positive and negative consequences from the “Lesser Elegants”, all come from the Kuo Feng Sections.

Knowledge of the Shih Ching poems was a necessity of diplomatic practice around the time of Confucius, when it was a common practice to deliver or at least support the delivery of diplomatic messages among the feudal domains (the “States or Guo of the Guo Feng) by oral presentation of relevant lines from the Classic. From the Han on many of the poems where imbued with very specific allegorical interpretations, but it is clear that later poets, who memorized the book word for word, used it as allusive material in their own poems at least as often for its plain “folk” messages as for its orthodoxly approved allegorical ones.