The Idea of the Chinese Poet

Gary Snyder†[tooltip content= “The New Directions Anthology of Classical Chinese Poetry, Eliot Weinberger (ed.)(New Directions, 2004)”] [source][/tooltip] [green_message]The fact is that although first and foremost the translations of Ezra Pound, Arthur Waley, a little later Witter Bynner, have had a distinctive impact on peopleís thinking and peopleís poetics, there was another thing that has been very important, running parallel to that right through, and that has been the idea of the Chinese poet, the image that the Chinese poet as a poet, as role-model, presented to us.

iIt is in just that humaneness, that delicate-Iím almost tempted to use the word sweet-appreciation of the details of human life, families, the frustrations of employment with the government, and the frustrations of being a hermit, that we perhaps respond to most deeply in Chinese poetry.

In a simple way, I think, our first Anglo-American received view of the Chinese poets was that they were civil servants. And in a simplified way, there is some truth in this. There were extremes as great perhaps as Han Yu on the one side as a rigorous, benevolent, socially-minded poet, Confucianist all his life; and at the other end, perhaps a poet like Han Shan, who speaks entirely from the hermits habitat. Yet in actual fact, these two kinds of poetry, which I am artificially separating for the moment, were generally produced by the same people. Now to add to the complexity, we have no real models in Occidental poetry of poets who either were staunch, quiet, solid civil servants involved in responsible positions in society for a whole lifetime as a regular type of poet, nor do we have on the other hand a real tradition of hermitís poetry in the Occident. So itís all the more interesting to see that these two types of roles of poetry were both in China coming from the same individuals, often at different stages within one lifetime, or in some cases, it was just a matter of literally changing hats_Confucian hat to Taoist hat while on a trip to the country.

I first responded, in 1949, living in Oregon, to my contact with Chinese poetry on the level of nature; that was what I was interested in. As a student of anthropology beginning to read on Far Eastern matters but really focusing on American Indian studies, I was deeply concerned with the almost abstract questions of philosophy of nature and problems involved when high civilizations impact on nature and impact on natural peoples. As a mountaineer and backpacker, when I read Chinese poetry, I was struck in some of the translations by qualities hard to describe . . . clarity, limpidity, space, and at the same time, a fine, specialized and precise attention and observation of natural detail-natural detail existing and functioning within a very large, 10,000 li, moonlit territory. That was my first interest in it.

Later, of course, reading more widely, and still only in translations, I realized that the extent was quite a bit broader, that it went from the Shi Ching (known variously as The Book of Odes, The Book of Songs, and The Confucian Odes) to, say, Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), Shi Ching to Mao Tse-tung, and that it included a vast range of possibilities of content. I also see now how different American poets came to Chinese poetry and received different things, As I looked initially only to the hermit poet/nture poet for inspiration and for a while took that to be what Chinese poetry really was, so a man whose work I valued highly as a teacher in poetic technology, namely Ezra Pound, found in Chinese poetry something else entirely. Pound was delighted with the possibility of poets having political power in a strong bureaucracy. Those perhaps are the two extremes-myself or someone like myself, and Pound or someone like Pound-in their reactions to the role possibilities implied in Chinese poetry.

Then we begin to notice something else there, lurking slightly below the surface, slightly further back in time-we see a glimmering in Li Ho, itís there very clearly in the Chí-u Tízu (The Songs of the South), and we can discern it in certain features in the Shih ChingĖand that is the poet as shaman. The shaman-poet role has been explicated for us by Edward Schaferís recent work, The Divine Woman, that brings out a whole range of images and symbols and underlying energies that are in that poetry, that you might not see there at first glance.

And yet, to go one more step, finally, for myself, what I go back to Chinese poetry for is its humaneness. Iím going to go back for a second to the introduction to the Shih Ching (compiled circa 600 B.C.), the original classic collection/anthology. ďPoetry is to regulate the married couple, establish the principle of filial piety, intensify human relationships, elevate civilization, and improve public morals.Ē Thatís Confuciusí estimate, or somebody like Confucius, of what poetry should do; and it must have had great influence because that man was highly respected in later centuries. Thinking this onethrough again, I thought: well, thereís a lot of truth in what he says, and actually poetry in a healthy, stable society (in which poets are not forced willy-nilly to all be alienated revolutionaries) does influence the behavior of lovers, and it does make one think of oneís parents, and put importance on friendship, and give meaning to history and culture, and improve public manners. So then I thought, yes, poetry should do that. Actually, in a visionary way, what we want poetry to do is guide lovers toward ecstasy, give witness to the dignity of old people, intensify human bonds, elevate the community, and improve_ public spirit. And so, it is in just that humaneness, that delicate-Iím almost tempted to use the word sweet-appreciation of the details of human life, families, the frustrations of employment with the government, and the frustrations of being a hermit, that we perhaps respond to most deeply in Chinese poetry, having a poetry ourselves which is so different in a way, so mythological, so political and so elevated, that it canít deal with ordinary human affairs often.

Gary Snyder
The New Directions Anthology of Classical Chinese Poetry
Eliot Weinberger (ed.)
(New Directions, 2004)